Presbycusis is the most common sensory impairment in the elderly population. Genetic factors play an important role in its occurrence and development. New progress has been made. The research confirmed that the candidate genes of related hot spots are mainly GRM7, GRHL2, TRIOBP, CDH23, mitochondrial genes and so on. These mutations mainly lead to inner and outer hair cell damage, and the pathogenic mechanisms are different: GRM7 gene is related to changes in neurotransmitters, mitochondrial genes are related to oxidative damage of reactive oxygen species, CDH23 gene is related to epigenetics such as methylation change about. This article reviews the regional differences of candidate presbycusis genes, genetic research methods, and pathogenic mechanisms.