Journal ID : CJOHNS-03-10-2023-11392
[This article belongs to Volume - 54, Issue - 06]

Title : Application and exploration of small dose omalizumab in patients with recurrent eosinophilic sinusitis after extended sinus surgery

Abstract :

Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) refers to an inflammatory disease of the sinonasal mucosa, with a significant economic burden and impact on quality of life. The diagnosis of CRS is conventionally made on careful history and physical examination, including nasoendoscopic assessment which requires technical expertise. There has been increasing interest in using biomarkers in the non-invasive diagnosis and prognostication of CRS, tailored to the disease inflammatory endotype. Potential biomarkers currently being studied can be isolated from peripheral blood, exhaled nasal gases or nasal secretions, as well as sinonasal tissue. In particular, various biomarkers have revolutionized the way in which CRS is managed, revealing new inflammatory pathways where novel therapeutic drugs are employed to curb the inflammatory process, which may be different from one patient to the next. Biomarkers that have been extensively studied in CRS, such as eosinophil count, IgE, and IL-5, have been associated with a TH2 inflammatory endotype which correlates with an eosinophilic CRSwNP phenotype that predicts a poorer prognosis, tends to recur after conventional surgical treatment, but responds to glucocorticoid treatment. Newer biomarkers that demonstrate potential, such as nasal nitric oxide, can support a diagnosis of CRS with or without nasal polyps, especially when invasive tests such as nasoendoscopy are unavailable. Other biomarkers such as periostin can be used to monitor disease course after treatment of CRS. With a personalized treatment plan, the management of CRS can be individualized, optimizing treatment efficiency and reducing adverse outcomes. As such, this review aims to compile and summarize the existing literature regarding the utility of biomarkers in CRS in terms of diagnosis and prognostication, and also makes recommendations for further studies to fill current knowledge gaps.

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