Each year, approximately 15 million newborns are born prematurely. This number is increasing despite advances in perinatal care. Objective: To study the survival and short-term fate of preterm infants of birth weight ≤1500grs at the Neonatology Reference Center CHU Rabat, Morocco. This is a prospective cohort study conducted at the National Reference Center in Neonatology in Rabat from January 01, 2021, to October 31, 2021. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS 23 software. Results: Among the 85 preterm newborns with low birth weight ≤1500grs, 50.6% survived and 49.4% died; including 45.2% of early deaths, the main cause of death was a neonatal infection in 83.4% of cases. 71.4% of the deceased were referred from other health facilities and the mothers’ 73.8% of the deceased newborns had not received any pregnancy follow-up. 82.2% of the surviving preterm newborns with a birth weight of ≤1500grs had an age between 7 and 15 days, and 73.4% had a weight between 2000gs and 2500gs at discharge. However, the main short-term complications of surviving preterm infants of birth weight ≤1500grs were infection at 32.2% and disorders of hemostasis and cerebral hemorrhage at 19.4%, followed by anemia at 16.1%, and jaundice at 12.9%. The impact of prematurity on families is major and several strategies have been put in place. However, the most effective treatment remains screening and follow-up of high-risk pregnancies.